Science & Technology

The Changes of Mode Production in Work and Employment

The world changes rapidly, and it involves the way humans live and interpret life. One of the changes is the approach of people to life by working in society and adjust to a particular era. The obstacle may be the fundamental confusion about what people actually work for in the dynamics-world. Therefore, this essay will discuss the reasons for humans to work and it changes in a particular work society timeline. The answer probably simply as satisfaction needs but this essay will discover it comprehensively in four parts. First, this essay will begin with fundamental concepts about work and society in general. The second to the final part, the orientation of people work, and its changes in the age of pre-modern, modern, and post-modern will be discussed respectively in three different parts.

Marx& Engels (1976, pp.48-49) initiates argumentation from historical perspectives that human existence in particular reason to work is fulfilling their demands. The technique to satisfy this demand is a mode of production which is related to maximize growth of production forces (Elster, 1985,p.241). This ‘demands’tend to be more complex because their desire has been fulfilled by a techniquethat is getting better over the time (Marx and Engels1976, pp.48-49).Moreover, in line with satisfying their desires, more new demands will appear (Marx and Engels1976, p.49).  In fact, the statement illustrates that humanneeds will never be fully satisfied, human nature of work will continue to becarried out as long as the human itself in society being exists. Consequently, ‘satisfy humans needs’ become an important key in therole of work society although some methods are different. Therefore, to see themode of production comprehensively, it may be necessary to chart it in the range oftime.

Firstly, at the beginning of humans participate in the economic system during the pre-modern society, there were two types of mode productions which are the slave and feudal mode of production (Anderson1974, p.18). Slavery mode originally occurred in ancient Greek-Roman`scivilisation that centred in cities even though agriculture, which was always located in countrysides, was still a major-production (Anderson,1974, p.18). The relation between cities and rural areas is a more likely city as a proponent of countrysides; or, in another word, is a is the main source of economic activity in this era. By the statement of Anderson(1974, p.19) that city as the centre of landowners that cause manufacture and trade activities tended to passive existing commodities. This may be caused by a section of production was not complicated and unsophisticated as a result of science still in the theory stage, and empirical technology has not produced a tool that helps manufacturer in mass production. Furthermore, the transportation was expensive due to lack of technology, whereby only water transportation, such as an ancient vessel, was possible to connect in medium and long trade-distance (Anderson1974, p.20). The only main human resource is captive agriculture which drives as much as profit from polis; moreover, the slave labour commonly conquered from prisoners-wars of colonialism (Anderson,1974, pp.25-28). This statement explainthat colonialism was a fundamental economic supply during pre-modern societies.In short, slavery pre-modern work societies portrait as ‘radical ruraldegradation’, Anderson(1974, p.24) described that clausebecause there were humans right violation against slavery workers.

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In the other parts of the world yet still in the close age, Western Europe was a place that the feudal mode of production emerged. Feudal was a production model based on the land which was equality treatment between products and labours (Anderson1974, p.147). This means the class of feudal lords assumed their workers as property and locked to the land which can be treated freely; moreover, the peasants would never have the land, they worked forcibly with the profits taken by feudal lords. In fact, as a result of feudalism is still in the same civilisation with slavery, technology is limited and transportation isolated to the sea. This causes agricultural still become a major-production of economical society and the countryside is an important fundamental place. However, the flows between city and rural areas not an economic base, but hierarchically from baronies to the kingdom (Anderson 1974,p.147-150). This explanation may describe that the higher the level, the more arbitrary the party will be. Therefore, this is clear that feudal mode grew from the injustice of system between economic exploitation and political authority.

Secondly, modern work society is very closely related to capitalism that was the first step after feudalism. In the beginning, capitalism determined by the emergence of manufacture`s role and the presence of urban workers (Elster 1985, p.281). Later,  capital becomes superior while in the early modern era, essential changes in organization of society with the better of technology, especially transportation (mostly maritime) and military technology(Elster1985, pp.287-288). The technology allows people to explore natural resources besides agriculture, such as gold, oil, and coal. The expansion becomes more globally because of its capitalist system in industrial development; in addition, privatisation of property allow everyone able to sell and buy the land (Elster, cited in Marx, K. 1867, p.281). Consequently, there is no worker tied to the land, or simply, there were no slavery workers anymore. Occupation system also changes where capitalism creates the new phenomenon of semi-skilled workers who able to operate a machine in a particular process instantly (Bell1999, p.15). These workers who commonly work in manufactures with certain ask with fixed its income. As a result, of this, industrialisation involveurbanisation from the city and may capture new phenomenon that for the first-time agriculture and manufacture shared their roles in the society.

Thirdly, during post-modern society, the society changes massively especially in the main that consist of social culture, polity, and – one of the most changed – social structure (Bell 1999, p.12). In details, some elements in the social structure which are the economy and occupational system was transformed significantly to the more convoluted system. Particularly, the correlation between science and technology was become stronger and being controlled by innovation. In this era, technology is an important part to changes physical power of labor to thinking machine (Rifkin, 1995).

Bell (1999,pp.14-20) charted changes in post-industrial society in five common characteristics but this essay will group it into two related key point. The first point is the characteristics that related to sector and employment. Establishment of service economy leads to increase of employment in the service sector which was not connected with agriculture and manufacturing sector; for instance, since 1980, Bell (1999,pp.14-20) quantitatively explains that in the United States, the proportion of contributionhuman resources in the service sector was increased to approximately 60%. The term of‘service’, however, should be viewed carefully as a result of Bell (1999,p.15) that explained it as ‘deceptive’which means all employment in service are not always in a part of post-industrial transformation; for example, service labour in less-skilled or housemaid are not expected as in part of changes after industrialisation. Consequently, the services workforce that related to intelligence is more crucial, such as in the education and research sector. Another important change is the employee orientation. Post-industrial society transforms the role of the professional worker and technician become more essential (Bell1999, p.15). Contrast to industrialisation stage that was participated by operator worker, service economy tends to need professional and technical occupations to support firms` business; for example, since 1956 white-collar occupation in the United States grew larger than a blue-collar occupation for the first time and the gap has been increasing constantly(Bell1999, p.18). In fact, automated machinery leads to reduction of blue-collar demands because the technology do not need technical operator anymore (Rifkin,1995, p.5). Bell and Rifkin view indicates that human resources turn into more intelligent to deal with substantive tasks even though it may have negative impact in the increase of unemployment rate of semi-skilled workers.

The second point is characteristics that related to knowledge and technology where Bell (1999,pp.14-20) figure it as three main attributes. Firstly, the use of knowledge.  Post-industrial society is not merely use machines in productions as in industrial society, but people manage more knowledge and technology to drive innovation through the synergy between science, technology, and economics in the role of Research and Development (R&D) (Bell1999, p.24-25). This proves that the technology sphere transformed significantly in the social structure and involve another sphere, such as economic and occupational system. Secondly, is the forecasting of technology that brings social structure to plan, forecast, and manage the gain of technology (Bell1999, p.26-27). This dimension may be essential, according to Bell (1999,p.25) current societies more likely to rely on technology and uncertainty technology will involve economical risk. Therefore, technological forecasting to map new potential technology will help the growth more stable. Thirdly,  the age of new technology. This refers to how society able to maintenance technology and knowledge through innovation.Consequently, experts should to find theway to create invention with research and development.

To conclude. Generally, this essay simply assumes that people work for the satisfaction of needs. However, the mode of production in each industrial timeline is different. Indetails, pre-modern work was dominated by the agricultural sector, while modern and post-modern work societies was dominated by profitable purpose in manufacturing and services sector. In addition, another important point is the transformation of the workforce, from slavery in pre-industrial work societies to semi-skilled worker in modern work societies, and finally intelligence of professional and technical labour in postmodern societies.

References  :

Anderson, P. (1974) Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism.NLB.

Bell, D. (1999) ‘Introduction’, in The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Book, pp. 12–33.

Elster, J. (1985) ‘The historical of modes productions’, in Making Sense of Marx. Cambridge University Press, pp. 278–289.

Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1976) ‘FEUERBACH’, in The German Ideology. Student Ed. London: Lawrance & Wishart, pp. 48–50.

Rifkin, J. (1995) ‘The End of Work’, in The End of Work. New York: Jeremy P.Teacher/Penguin, pp. 3–16.

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